Crypto tokens are digital assets built on blockchain technology that represent value and enable transactions. Tokens provide utility, security, or governance functions in cryptocurrency systems and decentralized applications. There are several main types of crypto tokens:

Utility tokens – These tokens give holders access to a product or service on the blockchain. They can be redeemed for functionalities like cloud storage, network bandwidth, discounts, voting rights, or transaction fees. Utility tokens are not designed as investments.

Security tokens – Security tokens represent an investment akin to shares of stock. They entitle holders to a portion of profits, equity, dividends or governance rights. Security tokens are subject to regulations like traditional securities.

Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) – Non-fungible tokens are unique cryptographic assets that represent ownership of digital or physical assets like art, collectibles, real estate, music or videos. NFT ownership is recorded on a blockchain ledger.

Stablecoins – Designed to minimize volatility, stablecoins peg their value to fiat currencies like the U.S. dollar or assets like gold. This allows for more price stability compared to standard cryptocurrencies.

Governance tokens – These tokens give holders a say in decisions on products or protocols through voting rights. Holders may vote on changes to the blockchain codebase, treasury management, or dispute resolution.

In most cases, crypto tokens are emitted and distributed through token sales or events like airdrops, staking rewards, or bounties. Token sales serve as cryptocurrency fundraising methods like a crowdsale or ICO. Tokens incentivize involvement and participation in blockchain networks and projects.

The advantages of crypto tokens include transparent scarcity, programmability, interoperability between platforms, and no need for middlemen. However, token value can fluctuate substantially. Regulatory views on tokens also continue to evolve. But crypto tokens present unique possibilities in digitizing assets and value exchange.